Calimani Mountains belong to the volcanic chain Harghita-Gurghiu – Calimani-Tibles – Gutai- Oas and are the youngest mountains in Romania (1.8 -5 million years) having a unique landscape, shaped by the erosion process resulting in eerily shaped zoomorphic rocks, strange present especially on southern and eastern flank and which constitute real tourist attractions. The biggest altitudes, over 2000m, are located on main crest, in the peaks: Pietrosul Calimani- 2102 m, Hungarian Negoiul-2081 m, Iezerul Calimanului- 2031 m, Retitis- 2021 m, Calimanul Stag 2013 m. In the UAT territory Toplita the highest altitudes in Calimani Mountains are located on the north-west of administrative territory, respectively Iezerul Calimanului and Retitis peaks. The natural potential of Calimani mountains, with scientific value and significant landscape, constitutes a major tourist destination, being among the most visited mountains in Romania.
Calimani National Park with a total area of 24,040 ha (of which 1224 ha are on Toplita city territory), is a protected area of national interest in the territory of which there is an impressive number of plants and animal species. The purpose of this is to protect and preserve elements of nature with outstanding physical-geographical value, floristic and speology, etc.
“Lacul Iezer” Reservation in Calimani is also a national interest protected area which is spread over an area of 322 ha, located entirely on the Toplita municipality administration. Reservation extends to Ratitis base and is represented by a glacial lake ( with an area of 1,200 square meters, a length of 45 m and width of 35m), and the outside area harbours a diverse vegetation of shrubs and a varied fauna of mammals.
Natura 2000 Sites
The ROSCI0252-Toplita- Scaunul Rotund Borsec site has a surface area of 5436 ha of which 7% are on the administrative territory of Toplita. The Reservation protects the so-called “petrifying sources” with deposits of travertine and big mammalian species, mentioned in Annex II of the EC Directive 92/43. Other characteristic forms of landscape are protected as well, particularly geological, geomorphic and hydro- geomorphologic elements.
The ROSCI OF in Calimani- Gurghiu site, with an area of 4002 ha (6% on Toplita city administration), includes the greater part of the volcanic massive Calimani and Gurghiu and “Lacul Iezer” Reservation in Calimani. One of the most important populations of carnivores in the Carpathians can be found here (brown bear, wolf, and lynx) and a significant concentration of flora and fauna protected by national law and EU directives.